本文摘要:HONG KONG — China has suspended a policy that would have effectively pushed foreign technology companies out of the country’s banking sector, according to a note sent by Chinese regulators to banks.香港——中国银行业监管机构给银行印发的通报文件表明,中国停止了一项事实上不会将外国


HONG KONG — China has suspended a policy that would have effectively pushed foreign technology companies out of the country’s banking sector, according to a note sent by Chinese regulators to banks.香港——中国银行业监管机构给银行印发的通报文件表明,中国停止了一项事实上不会将外国科技企业赶出有中国银行业的政策。Dated Monday, the letter called for banks to “suspend implementation” of the rules, which have been at the center of a brewing trade conflict between the United States and China. The rules, put into effect at the end of last year, called for companies that sell computer equipment to Chinese banks to turn over intellectual property and submit source code, in addition to other demands.周一印发的文件拒绝银行“停止实行”涉及规定,这些规定在中美大大烘烤的贸易冲突中出了一个核心问题。去年年底开始实行的规定除了明确提出其他拒绝,还规定那些向中国的银行出售计算机设备的公司,必需接管知识产权并递交源代码。

At stake is billions of dollars of business for major American companies that make the advanced computing hardware and software that crunches numbers for banks across China. Trade groups representing companies including Microsoft, IBM and Apple have complained that such policies are protectionist.这项规定牵涉到研发先进设备计算机硬件和软件的大型美国企业,价值数十亿美元的业务,中国各地的银行都利用这些软硬件来处置数据。代表微软公司(Microsoft)、IBM及苹果(Apple)等公司的行业的组织责怪称之为,此类政策归属于保护主义政策。Yet the development is only a small reprieve for American tech companies. The suspension is temporary as authorities revise the rules. It’s unclear how regulators will change the rules, but industry officials say a new version — even if it avoids more contentious issues like forcing the disclosure of source code — will still be problematic to multinational tech companies.但事态的这一步进展,对于美国科技企业来说只是继续的减轻。

涉及机构正在改动规定,延后措施只是继续的。目前尚能不确切监管机构不会对规定作出何种修改,但业界人士回应,对于国际科技企业来说,修改后的新版本——即便防止了被迫公司递交源代码等争议较小的问题——仍旧会不存在问题。The recent trade debate is part of a wider clash between China and the United States over online security and technology policy. The United States has accused Chinese military personnel of hacking American companies to gain commercial advantages for Chinese companies. And the Chinese maintain that disclosures from the former National Security Agency contractor Edward J. Snowden of American online espionage across the globe are reason enough for the country to wean itself off foreign technology, which may have been tampered with by United States intelligence agencies.最近的贸易争端是网络安全及技术政策在中美两国间导致的普遍冲突的一部分。

美国谴责中国军方人员反击美国企业,以便为中国企业夺得商业优势。中国则否认,前美国国家安全局(National Security Agency)承包商雇员爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)揭发了美国在全球积极开展的网络间谍活动,这让中国有充份的理由退出用于外国技术,美国情报机构有可能对这些技术做到过手脚。In the letter, which was reviewed by The New York Times, the China Banking Regulatory Commission and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology said that since the rules were passed, financial institutions and other parties had “amendment suggestions.” The regulations will be reissued after they are revised, according to the letter.《纽约时报》查询的通报表明,中国银行业监督管理委员会及工业和信息化部回应,自规定取得通过以来,金融机构和其他各方明确提出了“改动建议”。

通报称之为,规定在经过修改后,将不会新的公布。After a meeting between Treasury Secretary Jacob J. Lew and top Chinese officials last month, United States officials said that the rules would be suspended. But this week, a letter signed by American, European and Japanese trade groups said the policies were continuing, and they called for Beijing to put in writing that it would stop carrying them out. With the note issued this week, the Chinese government appears to have done that.美国财政部长雅各布·J·卢(Jacob J. Lew)和中国高层官员上个月举办了会晤,美国官员在会后回应,涉及规定不会停止实行。但本周,美国、欧洲及日本行业团体签订的一封信件称之为,中国仍在之后实行涉及政策,它们拒绝北京方面通过书面文件保证中国将暂停实行涉及政策。

从本周印发的通报来看,中国政府或许早已做了这一点。Such backpedaling is rare for Chinese policy makers, yet there is a precedent. In 2009, China said all computers imported to the country must come with filtering software called Green Dam-Youth Escort preinstalled. After heavy international pressure, China suspended the rule indefinitely.虽然中国政策制定者退回决策是十分少见的行径,但之前有过先例。

2009年,中国回应,所有进口到中国的电脑都必需笔记本电脑取名为绿坝-花季反潜的过滤器软件。在国际社会施予重压后,中国无限期停止了这项规定。Still, the banking regulations are less likely to share the fate of Green Dam. Although the Chinese appeared to have backed down on the regulations, China will most likely use “overt and covert” means to favor domestic tech companies over foreign ones, an American industry official said.但上述规定的前景应当会与绿坝一样。


美国的一名业界官员回应,虽然中国或许在涉及规定上作出了妥协,但中国可能会通过“公开发表或隐密”的方式指责国内科技企业,而非外国科技企业。“On the overt side would be to use the cyber-review testing regime, which is in formation now and where the focus will be on blocking American companies on security grounds,” said the official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity.“清面上不会使用目前正在制订的网络安全审查机制,重点是以安全性为由容许美国公司,”这名拒绝电子邮件的官员说道。

The government will almost certainly use covert means by quietly instructing Chinese banks not to procure from foreign companies, the official said.该官员称,政府完全认同不会用于隐密的手段,悄悄命令中国的银行不要从外国公司订购。“Most people here believe the Chinese policy will be to boost domestic I.C.T. manufacturers and kick out foreign companies, particularly American ones,” said the official, referring to information and communications technology.“这里的大部分人都指出,中国的政策将是反对国内的信息与通讯技术厂商,把外国公司,尤其是美国公司踢出去,”这名官员说道。The government may have decided to scuttle the regulations because they were poorly drafted and contained language about industrial policy that flew in the face of World Trade Organization rules, the official said.该官员回应,有可能是因为草拟匆忙,并且所含与世界贸易组织(World Trade Organization)的规则互为违反的行业政策,政府才要求取消涉及规定。

The Chinese technology rules, which Beijing says are intended to strengthen online security in the government and critical industries, are the first of a series of policies expected to be unveiled in the coming year. A proposed antiterror law that seems to have the backing of China’s security apparatus mandates that foreign companies give up encryption keys or use Chinese encryption in all devices sold in the country.未来一年,中国预计不会实施一系列政策,前述科技政策就是最先实行的一项。北京方面回应,该政策目的强化政府及关键行业的网络安全。


Foreign trade groups representing multinationals like Microsoft, IBM and Apple say the security concerns are a pretext to pass protectionist policies shutting foreign companies out of one of the world’s largest and fastest-growing information technology markets.代表微软公司、IBM和苹果等跨国企业的外国行业团体称之为,安全性忧虑是实行保护主义政策的借口。中国是全世界仅次于、快速增长最慢的信息技术市场之一,涉及政策将使外国公司被这个市场拒之门外。In a statement on Thursday, Josh Kallmer, senior vice president for global policy at the Information Technology Industry Council, a trade group that represents 60 tech companies including Microsoft and IBM, said that the rules suspension was welcome and that he hoped “this announcement means that Chinese financial institutions will have full access to the best technology — whether made domestically or globally.” The group wants “the Chinese government to embrace a globally leading role in undertaking open and transparent consultative processes among stakeholders in developing cybersecurity measures,” he said.在周四公开发表的一则声明中,代表微软公司和IBM等60家科技企业的行业团体信息技术产业协会(Information Technology Industry Council)负责管理全球政策的高级副会长乔希·卡尔默(Josh Kallmer)对停止涉及规定回应青睐,并回应期望“这则通报意味著中国的金融机构将能原始使用最差的技术——不管是国内还是国外研发的”。他说道,该的组织期望“中国政府在制订网络安全政策时,能分担起全球领导者的角色,以公开发表半透明的程序咨询利益涉及方”。

As the United States and China spar over technology concerns, the United States has also said that telecommunications and computing equipment made by the Chinese company Huawei could have so-called back doors — allowing monitoring by third parties — making it virtually impossible for Huawei to sell higher-end networking equipment in the United States. And more recently, President Obama warned that countries found to be responsible for online attacks against American companies might be subject to sanctions, a comment that analysts said was aimed in part at China.随着美国和中国环绕技术问题争论不休,美国也回应,中国公司华为生产的通讯和计算出来设备有可能不存在所谓的后门,容许第三方展开监控。这造成华为完全不有可能在美国销售更为高端的网络设备。而且就在最近,奥巴马总统警告称之为,被确认应付美国企业遭到的网络攻击负责管理的国家,可能会受到制裁。

分析人士称之为,奥巴马的此番评论在一定程度上针对的是中国。In addition to raising concerns after Mr. Snowden’s revelations, high-ranking Chinese security analysts have called vociferously, in a movement trumpeted in China’s state-run media, for China to get rid of high-end computing equipment made by companies like IBM and Oracle and used in critical industries like energy, banking and telecommunications.除了在斯诺登泄露事件后回应忧虑外,级别颇高的中国安全性分析人士还极力敦促,在能源、银行和通讯等关键行业,摒弃IBM和甲骨文(Oracle)等公司生产的高端计算出来设备。这场运动获得了官方媒体的极力称赞。

“I think the direction is clear,” said Adam Segal, a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. “There will still be some type of regulation that in the Chinese mind addresses their security concerns and gives greater transparency into U.S. technology companies. I don’t think that’s going to change.”“我实在方向很具体,”对外关系委员会(Council on Foreign Relations)的高级研究员亚当·谢加尔(Adam Segal)说道。“仍然不会有某种在中方显然,既能解决问题安全性疑虑,又能更加明晰地偷窥美国科技企业的监管规定。我实在这一点会逆。