本文摘要:MUMBAI — As the morning rain dripped in the garden outside, the yoga teacher Aparajita Jamwal got down on one knee, stretching the other leg behind her in a lunge known as the equestrian pose.孟买——屋外的花园里于是以下着淅淅沥沥的晨雨,瑜伽老师阿帕拉吉塔·贾姆瓦尔(Aparajita


MUMBAI — As the morning rain dripped in the garden outside, the yoga teacher Aparajita Jamwal got down on one knee, stretching the other leg behind her in a lunge known as the equestrian pose.孟买——屋外的花园里于是以下着淅淅沥沥的晨雨,瑜伽老师阿帕拉吉塔·贾姆瓦尔(Aparajita Jamwal)单膝跪在,另一条腿向后弯曲,这个动作被称作“石林式”。“Imagine youre a horse — you have a lovely mane flowing behind you — looking up towards the ceiling,” Jamwal urged in a soothing voice. “Take two more breaths here.” As she slid her body into a plank pose, the director yelled, “Cut!” and everyone took a five-minute break.“想象自己是一匹马——你美丽的鬃毛向后飘动——浮现看向天花板,”贾姆瓦尔以舒缓的嗓音嘱咐道,“这里要排便两次。

”当她的身体过渡性为板式时,编剧大喊:“咔”,然后大家睡觉五分钟。Rajshri Entertainment, the creator of this low-budget yoga instructional video, is one of the oldest players inIndias film industry, known as Bollywood.印度的Rajshri娱乐公司制作了这部低成本的瑜伽教学片。该公司是印度宝莱坞最老牌的公司之一。While Rajshri still makes and distributes movies at the cinema, it also produces 200 minutes of Web-only video a day. The company says the future lies in such straight-to-digital content, which it offers free to consumers onYouTubeand similar services, paid for by advertising.该公司在制作并发售在影院公映的电影的同时,每天还要制作200分钟仅有在网络公布的视频。

公司称之为,这种必要数字化的内容是未来的方向,消费者可以通过YouTube和类似于的服务免费观赏,由广告商缴纳费用。The 13-part series starring Jamwal, a brand development consultant who teaches yoga on the side, will be released in January on the Mind Body Soul channelthat Rajshri has on YouTube.贾姆瓦尔是一个品牌研发咨询师,在业余时间兼任瑜伽教练,这部由她兼任主角的分成13部分的系列片将于1月在Rajshri公司取名为“Mind Body Soul”(心理、身体、灵魂)的YouTube频道上公布。Unlike in the United States — where tens of millions of people pay to subscribe to streaming services like Netflix and customers routinely buy digital movies and shows on iTunes and Amazon.com — free video is the norm in India. That makes it difficult for content creators and networks to profit from streaming and download services.在印度,免费视频是主流。


在美国,数千万人收费订阅者Netflix这样的在线视频服务,顾客也有在iTunes和亚马逊上出售数字电影和节目的习惯。Although about a dozen local and foreign companies hope to persuade Indians to pay for online video, changing current habits will be difficult.虽然十几个当地公司和外国公司期望劝说印度人收费观赏在线视频,但是要转变人们目前的习惯很难。

In India, piracy is pervasive, Internet connection speeds are pokey, and thousands of full-length movies and TV episodes are legally available for free. Cable and satellite TV subscriptions cost just $2 or $3 a month, which makes paying just 50 cents for a movie seem expensive.在印度,正版大行其道,网际网路速度较慢,而且数以千计的完整版电影和电视剧可以合法地免费提供。有线电视和卫星电视的订阅费仅有为每月2美元或3美元,与此比起,花50美分看一部电影就变得很喜。Even if someone wants to buy a show, most people lack credit cards, and there is no established alternative for digital purchases. And roughly half of mobile viewing is done on pay-per-megabyte data plans from cellphone companies, which adds an extra cost to video viewing.即使有人想出售一部影片,大多数人也没信用卡,也没其他成熟期的电子支付方式。而且差不多一半的手机观赏是通过移动运营商按流量计费的网际网路套餐已完成,这是观赏视频的额外成本。

“The Indian consumer is just not willing to pay for content,” Rajjat A. Barjatya, Rajshris chief executive, said in an interview at the studios Mumbai offices a few days before the August yoga shoot.“印度的消费者就是不不愿为内容收费。”Rajshri公司的首席执行官拉雅特·巴贾特亚(Rajjat A. Barjatya)在8月摄制瑜伽片的前几天在孟买办公室的一次专访中回应。Barjatya said his company still brought in cinema revenue from the first few days of a films release, but Rajshri increasingly relies on ads sold around its library of 100,000 online videos, which include childrens cartoons, religious videos and behind-the-scenes interviews with movie stars.巴贾特亚称之为,新片公布的最初几天,公司依然能通过影院取得收益,但是公司于是以日益倚赖其享有10万部在线视频的视频库销售的广告。这些视频还包括儿童卡通片、宗教视频以及电影明星的幕后专访。

Despite the challenges of making money in Indias video market, several U.S. companies have decided they need to be there.虽然视频网站在印度赚仍面对重重困难,但多家美国公司早已要求植根这里。In February, 21stCentury Fox, which owns many of Indias most popular television channels through its Star India unit, began offering free online access to delayed sports broadcasts and hundreds of movies and TV shows through a website and mobile app calledHotstar.2月,21世纪福克斯(21stCentury Fox)的Star India子公司开始通过一个取名为“Hotstar”的网站和移动应用于免费获取在线视频,还包括延后的体育直播以及数百部电影和电视剧。通过该子公司,福克斯享有印度的许多颇受欢迎的电视频道。

About 35 million people have downloaded the app, and the average user spends about 30 minutes a day on it, the company said.公司称之为,早已有约3500万人iTunes了这款应用于,每天每个用户平均值花30分钟用于这款应用于。Amazon, which is competing aggressively in Indias online retail market, intends to offer a version of its Prime service in the country soon, bundling unlimited shipping and video streaming together for one flat fee.正在印度在线零售市场发动攻势的亚马逊计划迅速发售Prime服务的印度版,一次收费才可同时享用无限制的车主和在线视频服务。Next year, Netflix plans to extend its service to India as part of a broader global expansion.明年,Netflix计划开始在印度获取服务,作为其全球扩展的一部分。

All of them will have to contend with Googles YouTube, the dominant online video service, which has operated in India since 2007 and has set consumer expectations for video here.所有这些公司都必需和谷歌的YouTube竞争。YouTube从2007年开始在印度运作,它在印度的在线视频市场占到主导地位,并创建了消费者对视频的期望。Early on, YouTube persuaded Bollywood studios and TV networks to put material on the service free.从很早以前开始,YouTube就劝说宝莱坞的制片公司和电视网络在其平台上免费获取一些资源。

In India, “there are no reruns of old shows,” Gautam Anand, YouTubes director of content and partnerships for Asia, explained in a video interview from Singapore. “We convinced them there was value in a lot of that content that was just sitting there, and if they made it available, people would watch it.”在印度,“杨家电视剧会重播。”YouTube亚洲内容与合作部门负责人低塔姆·阿南德(Gautam Anand)在新加坡拒绝接受视频专访时说明道,“我们让他们坚信,许多堆满在那里的资源是有价值的,如果他们获取这些资源,人们不会去观赏。”Some Indian YouTube channels have millions of followers, and the company says the total number of hours watched has been growing 80 percent annually. YouTube recently began allowing Indians to download and store clips for later viewing.印度的一些YouTube频道享有数百万的订阅者者,公司称之为每年的总观赏时长正在以80%的速度减少。

YouTube最近开始容许在印度iTunes并存储影片,以供之后观赏。YouTube shares the revenue from advertising around the clips, giving content creators a way to earn a bit of money, although ad rates are low — from about $1 to $4 per 1,000 viewers reached, or roughly one-tenth the rate in the United States.该公司分享视频的广告收益,让内容创作者有机会借此利润,不过广告费亲率很低——每1000次观赏约带给1美元到4美元,相等于美国费率的十分之一左右。YouTube has also trained Indian viewers to believe that video should be free, making it difficult for anyone else to charge a fee.YouTube还向印度的观看者灌输视频应当免费的观念,所以其他任何人想收费就显得很艰难。

Eros International, one of Bollywoods most prolific studios, was among the first to challenge the YouTube model. In 2014, it introduced a streaming service calledEros Now, which offers access to Eros-owned films as well as licensed content.宝莱坞生产量靠前的Eros国际公司是第一批对YouTube模式发动挑战的公司。2014年,它发售了一个取名为“Eros Now”的在线视频服务,获取版权归属于Eros的电影和其他版权内容。

With an extensive free tier of videos, supported by ads, the company says that Eros Now has attracted about 30 million registered users. But Eros has been tinkering with premium options — including original, made-for-streaming dramas that will begin streaming in January — that it hopes will attract a paying audience in India and abroad.通过载有广告的大量免费视频,公司称之为目前已更有到了3000万的登记用户。但Eros正在试验高级服务选项——从1月开始播出原创的、专为在线播放制作的电视剧——他们期望更有来自印度和海外的收费观众。For an extra 50 to 100 rupees a month, or about 75 cents to $1.50, customers in India can access more videos and watch high-definition, ad-free streams. (Overseas subscribers have to pay $8 a month for the premium version.) In December, Eros will also begin allowing paid subscribers to download videos for later viewing.印度的消费者只需每个月缴50到100卢比,相等于75美分到1.5美元,就能观赏更好的视频,还包括那些高清的、无广告的在线视频。(海外订阅者者每个月则必需缴纳8美元才能升级到高级版。


)12月,Eros将开始容许收费订阅者用户iTunes视频,以便之后观赏。“The Indian consumer is willing to pay for more than we give them credit for,” said Jyoti Deshpande, chief executive of Eros, in a recent interview at the companys Mumbai offices.“印度的消费者比我们指出的更为不愿借钱。”Eros的首席执行官乔提·德什潘德(Jyoti Deshpande)最近在孟买的办公室展开专访时说。

Deshpande said Eros expected that within five to seven years, at least half of the companys revenues will come from streaming.德什潘德说道,Eros预计在未来五到七年内,公司最少一半以上的收益不会来自在线视频。Like Eros Now, Star India figures that its exclusive, local-language content and broadcasts of popular sports like cricket will eventually attract paying users to its streaming service.和现在的Eros一样,Star India找到独家的、当地语言内容和板球等热门体育节目最后不会更有到收费用户。Right now, however, Hotstar is entirely free. Although about 100 advertisers help pay the bills, most of the companys Indian revenue comes from its Star television channels, so it can afford to be patient, said Sanjay Gupta, chief operating officer of Star India.然而,目前Hotstar是完全免费的。

尽管更有到大约100个广告商,该公司在印度的大多数收益来自其Star电视频道,所以公司可以维持冷静,Star India的首席运营官桑杰·格普塔(Sanjay Gupta)说道。“We are building the habit of viewers to start consuming content on our platform,” he said.“我们正在让观看者教导在这一平台上消费的习惯。”他说道。

Ultimately, it will be a long time before streaming video in India becomes a significant business for anyone, predicted Colin Sebastian, an Internet analyst with Robert W. Baird Co., who has studied the Indian market.在印度,在线视频最后沦为最重要产业还须要假以时日,Robert W. Baird Co.公司的互联网分析师、印度市场研究员科林·塞巴斯蒂安(Colin Sebastian)这样预测。“The amount of money to be made is very small,” Sebastian said.“能赚的钱非常少。